substance abuse

a pattern of compulsive substance use marked by recurrent significant social, occupational, legal, or interpersonal adverse consequences, such as repeated absences from work or school, arrests, and marital difficulties. DSM–IV–TR identifies nine drug classes associated with abuse: alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, phencyclidines, and sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics. This diagnosis is preempted by the diagnosis of substance dependence: If the criteria for abuse and dependence are both met, only the latter diagnosis is given. In DSM–5, however, both have been subsumed into substance use disorder and are no longer considered distinct diagnoses.
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